A Signal From Mars
The esoteric significance of 19.5° was actually first brought to
mankind’s attention through another celestial body much closer to
Earth – the Red Planet.
is not as strange as it sounds. For instance, Mars happens to be
intertwined with ancient Egypt in curious ways:
Egyptian capital Cairo, situated adjacent to Giza, derives its name
from Al Qahira denoting
Mars. (More literally it means ‘the victorious’.)
ancient Egyptians called Mars ‘Horus of the Horizon’ (Horakhti),
which was the very same name given to the Great Sphinx. Mars was
also called ‘Horus the Red’ (Hor
Dshr), and for a long time the Sphinx was painted red.
as the Great Sphinx is the hybrid of man and a lion, in ancient
Hindu myths Mars is Nr-Simha, the ‘Man-Lion’.
term ‘pyramid’ derives from the Greek term pyr
meaning ‘fire’, as in Mars the ‘fire planet’. (Mars is often
referred to as pyroeis in Greek.)
for the angle 19.5°, it resides at the heart of the geometric
‘message’ claimed to have been found on the deceptively barren
the first sign of the ‘Martian message’ emerged through certain
structures that were not only pyramidal
but also tetrahedral.
apparent pyramids were captured on camera in 1972 by NASA’s Mariner
9, the first spacecraft to enter Mars orbit in history. As it flew
over a region called Elysium Quadrangle, the probe just happened to detect this ‘tip of
the iceberg’ – as they would turn out to be – quietly sitting
no serious scientific investigation was launched, it was certainly
anomalous enough for celebrated scientist Carl Sagan to comment that
these ‘beckoning pyramids’, as he called them, did ‘warrant…a
this little prelude came Cydonia.
my God, look at this!’, exclaimed Tobias Owen of JPL (Jet
Propulsion Laboratory) as he came across a photograph labeled 35A72,
sent from Mars by Viking 1
in 1976. What he saw was the now infamous ‘Face on Mars’
situated in a region called Cydonia.
was a rock formation resembling a huge human face silently staring up
seemingly a silly notion, there was at least some symbolic coherence
here, as noted by Richard Hoagland, in that the Egyptian name given to
the ‘Martian god’ Horus was Heru, which could also mean ‘face’.
The first picture of the ‘Face
on Mars’ (35A72) taken by the Viking spacecraft in 1976.
came Vincent Dipietro, a NASA computer scientist, who discovered another
photograph (70A13) in 1979 that showed the same object still looking
like a face. But more importantly, DiPietro along with Gregory Molenaar
found another peculiar feature in the vicinity of the ‘Face’. This
was a gigantic and seemingly five-sided pyramidal structure, nicknamed
the ‘D&M Pyramid’ (after DiPietro and Molenaar).
the ‘Face’, this pyramid proved to be more effective in determining
the involvement of intelligence, thanks to its geometric nature. And
shocking was what the subsequent analysis revealed: the inferred design
of the D&M Pyramid seemed to express Pythagorean mathematics and
Figure 2.7 Geometric
analysis of the ‘D&M Pyramid’ model.
NASA, however, simply could not be bothered to look into the growing
frustrated, Dipiero and Molenaar resolved to write Unusual Mars Surface Features – which would catch the attention of
Richard Hoagland, a science writer and former space program consultant.
(He presently heads ‘The Enterprise Mission’, a group devoted to
investigating space anomalies as well as anything remotely related).
some investigation of his own, Hoagland found other anomalous objects in
Cydonia, such as what he nicknamed the ‘City’, ‘Fort’,
‘Cliff’, and ‘Tholus’.
fascinated by those ‘Monuments of Mars’ and driven by pure
curiosity, he went on to establish the Independent Mars Investigation (IMI)
funded by SRI International, a renowned think tank in California
involved with cutting-edge science and technology. This eventually
evolved into the ‘Mars Mission’ and then into ‘The Enterprise
Mission’. Among the members were DiPiero, Molenaar, anthropologist
Randolpho Pozos, plasma physicist John Brandenberg, SRI scientists
Lambert Dolphin and Bill Beatty, image-processing expert Mark Carlotto,
and cartographer Erol Torun.
independent researchers then managed to accumulate ample evidence to
strongly support the structures’ artificiality – the most compelling
being the geometric attributes of the D&M Pyramid model found by
Torun discovered was a
mathematically rich figure whose geometry contains the mathematical bases for
the hexagon, the pentagon, and the classic proportions of the Golden Ratio…
Twenty of the model’s internal angles, angle ratios, and trigonometric
functions redundantly express three square root values, sqrt
5, and two mathematical constants, pi (the ratio of the circumference of a circle
to its diameter) and e (the base of the natural logarithms) with a mean error
of one-half of one percent… Except for sqrt
2 and sqrt
3, the constants do not appear alone, but in
seven different mathematical combinations... The most redundant values
discovered were e/pi,
5, and sqrt
3. These values are repeated
four times each in at least two different modes of measurement.
investigators additionally revealed that the geometry of the D&M
Pyramid seemed to emphasize key tetrahedral angles such as 19.5°
In particular, the ‘tetrahedral constant’ 19.5° was found encoded
everywhere in the region of Cydonia.
There was, for example, a set of sixteen little ‘mounds’ in the
‘City’ area examined by Horace W. Crater, a physicist and
pattern-analysis expert at the Tennessee Space Institute.
was astounded to discover that the mounds were definitely not randomly
placed features. Many of the angles made by the mounds, he had to
conclude, were decidedly tetrahedral
and functions of 19.5°.
Tetrahedral geometry, therefore, had firmly emerged as the ‘message of
Cydonia’. And on this point, Hoagland states in The
Monuments of Mars:
key… now unmistakably centers on the geometric and geodetic properties
of an inscribed tetrahedron… surrounded by a sphere, communicated so
redundantly through the inter-locking geometry, angles, mathematical
constants, and their associated trigonometric functions discovered so
redundantly across Cydonia.
'Geometric Relationship Model' of Cydonia]
If these findings are accurate, it would amount to one of the biggest
revelations in history – the first sign of intelligence outside of our
own planet. And yet, today the general public is largely oblivious to
this development. Most people’s knowledge on this does not go beyond
the mere existence of ‘the face-like thing on Mars’, as they are
utterly unaware of all the remarkable geometric data.
is this? Why is the explosive matter of Cydonia being ignored? Is it
because the findings are invalid conclusions conjured up by a bunch of
so, according to Stanley McDaniel, professor emeritus and former
chairman of the philosophy department at Sonoma State University, a man
most suited for evaluating this kind of issue for he is specifically
trained in reasoning – man’s only true friend in finding truth.
McDaniel writes in The McDaniel
Report: On the Failure of Executive, Congressional, and Scientific
Responsibility in Investigating Possible Evidence of Artificial
Structures on the Surface of Mars and in Setting Mission Priorities for
NASA’s Mars Exploration Program (1993):
initial approach was one of considerable skepticism… [But] over the
course of the investigation my appreciation for what these researchers
had done, and the underlying scientific integrity of their work, began
to grow. I found that the occasional faults in their work were far
outweighed by the solidity of the data and their responsiveness to the
needs of what is, after all, the first study of its kind in history.
data collected in the course of these investigations appears to be
highly reliable. The most advanced techniques of image enhancement,
photoclinometry and fractal analysis, confirmed by cross-checking and
thoroughly documented, have been used. The investigators are
acknowledged experts in their fields with strong academic and
professional qualifications. In every test, the data has consistently
tilted in the direction of artificial, rather than natural, origin.
Moreover, the various tests performed, including anthropometric and
aesthetic evaluation, have been mutually cross-confirming.
it was done by ‘an impeccable, unquestionably academic source’, The
McDaniel Report represented ‘a major scientific and political
breakthrough for the entire subject of Cydonia’.
why, we must ask again, have the Martian findings not made the headlines
all over the world, as they surely deserve?
find that this is largely thanks to the strange reaction of the
establishment – namely NASA – to Cydonia. On this, McDaniel writes:
my study of the work done by the independent investigators and NASA’s
response to their research continued, I became aware not only of the
relatively high quality of the independent research, but also of glaring
mistakes in the arguments used by NASA to reject this research. With
each new NASA document I encountered, I became more and more appalled by
the impossibly bad quality of the reasoning used. It grew more and more
difficult to believe that educated scientists could engage in such
faulty reasoning unless they were following some sort of hidden agenda
aimed at suppressing the true nature of the data. Eventually my original
naïve view – that all NASA scientists were sincerely interested in
the truth – was utterly shattered…
years [as of 1993] of ridicule by NASA and a small handful of scientists
whose field of expertise is severely limited has encouraged many people
to ignore the data and dismiss the [issue] as a joke… Instead of
carrying out legitimate scientific inquiry, NASA has regularly sent
false and misleading statements regarding the landforms to members of
Congress and their constituents. NASA has condoned efforts to unfairly
ridicule and discredit independent researchers… despite the fact that
the only real scientific study of the landforms indicates a clear
possibility that they are artificial.
issue concerning the ‘hidden agenda’ of NASA is ultimately too
complex and obscure to delve into here. But suffice it to say that there
are those behind the scenes who seem to know much more than the general
public, academia, media, and even the government do, and they seem to
wield an invisible but strong influence on our perception of
‘reality’. And for whatever reason, it appears that ‘they’ do
not want the matter of extraterrestrial artifacts taken seriously.
there are certainly many layers of reasons and agendas involved here, on
a basic level anthropologist Randolfo Pozos was probably on the mark
when he stated:
greatest difficulty posed by these curious landforms on Mars occurs…
at the level of beliefs and fundamental values… In essence these
landforms on Mars are intellectual land-mines.
is also quite feasible that the apparent suppression of the information
has much to do with the ultimate meaning of the ‘message of
Cydonia’, which, according to Richard Hoagland, concerns what he calls
is a form of ‘hyperspace’ theory that basically adds extra
dimensions to the normal four dimensions of space and time to explain
physical phenomena. In the model promoted by Hoagland, stemming from the
Cydonia research, tetrahedral geometry and angular momentum are viewed
as the key to uniting the physical and ‘hyperdimensional’ realms.
And this unification, if achieved, would lead to the harnessing of an
entirely new form of energy or force.
valid and developed further, it has the potential to quickly and
completely upset the societal structure and utterly undermine those in
control of the world’s economy – as the new physics would easily
translate to something akin to ‘free energy’, which in turn
translates to dramatically decreased dependency on oil and other
conventional energy sources.
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